This update is always asked for and it always completes with a 1603 exit code.
Find the MSI error codes at https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/win32/msi/error-codes
Have you rebooted your system to resolve any hanging installation?
Please check the Application Event log, in two cases of mine, the following events are logged:
1) Event ID 10005, Source: MsiInstaller, Level: Error, User: System, Product: Adobe Acrobat Reader DC -- Error 2753.The File 'acrosup64.dll' is not marked for installation.
2) Event ID 1024, Source: MsiInstaller, Level: Errors, User: System, Product: Adobe Acrobat DC (64-bit) - Update 'Adobe Acrobat Reader DC
(22.001.20117)' could not be installed. Error code 1603. Windows Installer can create logs to help troubleshoot issues with installing software packages. Use the following link for instructions on turning on logging support: http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=23127 (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=23127)
3) Event ID 1036, Source: MsiInstaller, Level: Information, User: System,Windows Installer installed an update. Product Name: Adobe Acrobat DC (64-bit). Product Version: 22.001.20117. Product Language: 1033. Manufacturer: Adobe. Update Name: Adobe Acrobat Reader DC
(22.001.20117). Installation success or error status: 1603.
You can enable logging by adding the registry keys detailed here: https://www.adobe.com/devnet-docs/acrobatetk/tools/ReleaseNotesDC/continuous/dccontinuous.html?highlight=asian#creating-msi-logs-on-windows (https://www.adobe.com/devnet-docs/acrobatetk/tools/ReleaseNotesDC/continuous/dccontinuous.html?highlight=asian#creating-msi-logs-on-windows).
Also a possible solution is to run the Acrobat cleaner (AcroClean) tool, I will test that and come back, the tool can be found here https://www.adobe.com/devnet-docs/acrobatetk/tools/Labs/cleaner.html (https://www.adobe.com/devnet-docs/acrobatetk/tools/Labs/cleaner.html).